Mafia Wars didn't just restrict their items to just items of violence, they also included animals as well. Animals have recently been added as a separate class, apart from Weapons, Armor, and Vehicles.
While seldom aggressive, howler monkeys do not take well to captivity and are of surly disposition. Howler monkeys are among the largest of the New World monkeys. Nine species are currently recognized. Threats to howler monkeys include being hunted for food and captivity.
A squirrel is one of many small or medium-sized rodents in the family Sciuridae. In the English-speaking world, squirrel commonly refers to members of this family's genera Sciurus and Tamiasciurus, which are tree squirrels with large bushy tails, indigenous to Asia, the Americas and Europe. The Laser Squirrel here is a joke spinoff made by Zynga for Halloween 2009.
The Siberian tiger also known as the Amur, Manchurian, Altaic, Korean, North China or Ussuri tiger is a subspecies of tiger which once ranged throughout Western and Central Asia and eastern Russia, though it is now completely confined to far eastern Siberia, where it is now protected. It is the biggest of the eight recent tiger subspecies and the largest living.
A white tiger is a tiger with a recessive gene that creates the pale coloration. Another genetic characteristic makes the stripes of the tiger very pale; white tigers of this type are called snow-white or "pure white". White tigers are not albinos and do not constitute a separate subspecies of their own and can breed with orange ones.
Black panthers are melanistic color variants of several species of larger cat. Wild black panthers in Latin America are black jaguars. In Asia and Africa black leopards and in North America may be black jaguars or possibly black cougars. Black jaguars may produce either black or spotted cubs.
The snow leopard is a moderately large cat native to the mountain ranges of Central Asia. Snow leopards live between 9,800 and 18,000 ft above sea level in the rocky mountain ranges of Central Asia. However, their secretive nature means that their exact numbers are not known, although it has been estimated that between 3,500 and 7,000 snow leopards exist in the wild.
The grey wolf, often known simply as wolf, is the largest wild member of the Canidae family.It is an ice age survivor. Though once abundant over much of Eurasia and North America, the gray wolf inhabits a very small portion of its former range because of widespread destruction of its territory, human encroachment, and the resulting human-wolf encounters. Wolves have on occasion been kept as pets and as working animals, though not without difficulty, as they require much more early socialisation than dogs do.
The Irish Wolfhound is a breed of domestic dog. The breed is very old there are suggestions it may have been brought to Ireland around 3500 BC. The most distinguishing physical feature of the Irish Wolfhound is its great size. Generally breeders aim for a height range of 85 to 95 centimeters (34 to 38 inches), acceptable weight 46–70 kg (101–154lbs). The Irish Wolfhound has a very peaceful personality and is good with children. An easygoing animal, they are usually quiet by nature. They should not be territorially aggressive to other domestic dogs but are born with specialized skills and it is common for hounds at play to course another dog. Irish Wolfhounds don't live long lives. Published lifespan estimations vary between 5 and 10 years.
Highball is a German Shepherd. German Shepherds are among the many purebred dogs preferred for their loyal nature. They can be well trained to respond to voice commands and are among the breeds preferred by law enforcement to be used for tracking and drug interdiction.
Historically, the German Shepherd, "Highball" was the only known survivor of the St. Valentine's Day Massacre, hence its inclusion in Mafia Wars.
Sled dogs, known also as sleighman dogs, sledge dogs, or sleddogs, are highly trained types of dogs that are used to pull a dog sled, a wheel-less vehicle on runners also called a sled or sleigh, over snow or ice, by means of harnesses and lines.
Sled dogs have become a popular winter recreation and sport in North America and Europe; sled dogs are now found even in such unlikely places as Germany and Japan. Several distinct dog breeds are used as sled dogs, however, dog drivers have a long history of using other breeds or crossbreeds as sled dogs. There are two main qualities that are expected in sled dogs: endurance and speed. Racing sled dogs will travel up to an average 20 mph (32 km/h) over distances up to 25 mi (40 km). Although these dogs are very helpful, the origins of this arrangement are unknown.
The cat (Felis domesticus), also known as the domestic cat or housecat to distinguish it from other felines and felids, is a small domesticated carnivorous mammal that is valued by humans for its companionship and its ability to hunt vermin and household pests. Cats have been associated with humans for at least 9,500 years, and are currently the most popular pet in the world. However, the Mafia Wars house cat is a young white tiger to tie in with the movie "Scarface," starring Al Pacino. See the Siberian Tiger and Pair of Pet Tigers entries for details.
The South China tiger or South Chinese tiger (Panthera tigris amoyensis), also known as the Chinese, Amoy, or Xiamen tiger, is a subspecies of tiger native to the forests of Southern China. The South China tiger is one of the smaller and it is the most critically endangered of any of the living tiger subspecies. Experts maintain that there are fewer than 20 of these tigers left in the wild, and warn that it might become extinct within the next decade. The South China tiger has been recently listed as one of the world's 10 most endangered animals. This item was added as part of the Mafia Wars Chinese New Year celebration, as 2010 is the Year of The Tiger.
The lion (Panthera leo) is one of the four big cats in the genus Panthera, and a member of the family Felidae. With some males exceeding 250 kg (550 lb) in weight, it is the second-largest living cat after the tiger. Wild lions currently exist in Sub-Saharan Africa and in Asia with a critically endangered remnant population in Gir Forest National Park in India, having disappeared from North Africa and Southwest Asia in historic times. The lion is the tallest (at the shoulder) of the felines, and also is the second-heaviest feline after the tiger. With powerful legs, a strong jaw, and 8 cm (3.1 in) long canine teeth, the lion can bring down and kill large prey.
Pit Bull is a term commonly used to describe several breeds of dog in the molosser family. Many breed-specific laws use the term "pit bull" to refer to the modern American Pit Bull Terrier, American Staffordshire Terrier, and Staffordshire Bull Terrier, and dogs with significant mixes of these breeds; however, a few jurisdictions also classify the modern American Bulldog and Bull Terrier as a "pit bull-type dog". All three breeds share similar history, with origins rooted from the bulldog and a variety of terriers.
A Mustang is a free-roaming feral horse of the North American west that first descended from horses brought to the Americas by the Spanish. Mustangs are often referred to as wild horses, but the more correct term is feral horses. Today, the Mustang population is managed and protected by the Bureau of Land Management.
A stallion is a male horse that has not been gelded (neutered). Temperament varies widely based on genetics, and training, but because of their instincts as herd animals, they may be prone to aggressive behavior, particularly toward other stallions, and thus require careful management by knowledgeable handlers. However, with proper training and management, stallions are effective equine athletes at the highest levels of many disciplines, including horse racing, horse shows, and international Olympic competition. The Dublin Stallion was a limited edition loot item during Mafia Wars' St. Patrick's Day job in March 2010.
The Russian Bear is a national personification for Russia, used in cartoons and articles at least since the 19th century, and relating alike to Tsarist Russia, the Soviet Union and the present post-Soviet Russia.
The Kodiak bear, also known as the Alaskan grizzly bear, is the largest subspecies of brown bear and occupies the islands of the Kodiak Archipelago in south-central Alaska. They are the largest brown bear subspecies, and are comparable in size to polar bears. That makes Kodiak bears and polar bears the two largest members of the bear family.
Kraken are legendary sea monsters of gargantuan size, said to have dwelt off the coasts of Norway and Iceland. The legend may actually have originated from sightings of real giant squid that are variously estimated to grow to 13–15 m (40–50 ft) in length, including the tentacles. These creatures normally live at great depths, but have been sighted at the surface and reportedly have "attacked" ships.
Cattle are raised as livestock for meat (beef and veal), as dairy animals for milk and other dairy products, and as draft animals (pulling carts, plows and the like). Other products include leather and dung for manure or fuel. In some countries, such as India, cattle are sacred. It is estimated that there are 1.3 billion cattle in the world today. In 2009, cattle became the first livestock animal to have its genome mapped. The Zombie Cow is a joke spinoff created by Zynga for Halloween 2009. It is made to appear as a cow form the Zynga game farmville.
Santa Claus's reindeer are a team of flying reindeer traditionally held to pull the sleigh of Santa Claus and help him deliver Christmas gifts. The commonly cited names of the reindeer are based on those used in the 1823 poem A Visit from St. Nicholas, where they are called Dasher and Dancer, Prancer and Vixen, Comet and Cupid, and Dunder and Blixem. Dunder was later changed to Donder and — in other works — Donner, and Blixem was later changed to Blitzen.
Parrots are found in most warm and tropical regions. Parrots, along with ravens, crows, jays and magpies, are some of the most intelligent birds, and the ability of some parrot species to imitate human voices enhances their popularity as pets. Trapping of wild parrots for the pet trade, as well as other hunting, habitat loss and competition from invasive species, have diminished wild populations. The Rabid Parrot was one of the winners of Zynga's contest held on Twitter for new Mafia Wars equipment ideas.
As an avian specie, parrots cannot contract rabies.
In Thailand, white elephants are sacred and a symbol of royal power; all those discovered are presented to the king (usually this is ceremonial — they are not taken into captivity)and the more white elephants the king has, the greater his standing. A white elephant in Thailand is not necessarily albino, although it must have pale skin. Candidate animals are assessed according to a series of physical and behavioural criteria (including eye colour, the shape of the tail and ears, and intelligence). Those which pass the tests are then assigned to one of four categories and are offered to the king, although the lower grades are sometimes refused.
Elephant riding has become an integral part of all tourists’ visits to Thailand. Well-trained elephants can be ridden through local villages and surrounding forests. The type and length of rides varies – it can be a half hour walk around an elephant village or tourist attraction, or you can book a three or five day trek through the jungle in northern Thailand.
A War Elephant is an elephant trained and guided by humans for combat. Their main use was to charge the enemy, trampling them and breaking their ranks. A division of war elephants is known as elephantry.
They were probably first employed in India, the practice spreading out across south-east Asia and westwards into the Mediterranean. From India, military thinking on the use of war elephants spread westwards to the Persian Empire, where they were used in several campaigns and in turn came to influence the campaigns of Alexander the Great.
An elephant charge could reach about 30 km/h (20 mph), and unlike horse cavalry, could not be easily stopped by an infantry line setting spears.In addition to charging, the elephants could provide a safe and stable platform for archers to fire arrows in the middle of the battlefield, from which more targets could be seen and engaged.
The Boa constrictor is a large, heavy-bodied species of snake, found in Central America, South America and some islands in the Caribbean. The Boa constrictor is a large snake, and can reach lengths of anywhere from 3-13 feet depending on the locality and the availability of suitable prey.
A Spitting Cobra is one of several species of cobras that have the ability to eject venom from their fangs when defending themselves against predators. The sprayed venom is harmless to intact skin. However, it can cause permanent blindness if introduced to the eye and left untreated. When cornered, some species can "spit" their venom a distance as great as two meters. While spitting is typically their primary form of defense, all spitting cobras are capable of delivering venom through a bite as well.
A cobra is a venomous snake, whose name is short for cobra de capelo, which is Portuguese for "snake with hood," or "hood-snake." When disturbed, most of these snakes can rear up and spread their neck (or hood) in a characteristic threat display.
Anacondas are large, non-venomous boas found in tropical South America. One of the largest snakes in the world, and possibly the longest. Specimens of up to around 30 feet have been caught or killed and examined. They live mostly in water, such as the Amazon River. While this snake poses a danger to humans, and there are several ascertained cases of people being killed by it, it does not regularly hunt humans. Its standard prey includes fish, river fowl, and occasionally domesticated goats or ponies that venture near or into the water.
TheKomodo Dragon, also known as the monitor lizard, is a species of lizard that inhabits the islands of Komodo, Rinca, Flores, and Gili Motang in Indonesia. It is the largest living species of lizard, growing to an average length of 2 to 3 metres (6.6 to 9.8 ft) and weighing around 70 kilograms (150 lb).The Komodo dragon does not have a particularly acute sense of hearing, despite its visible earholes, and is only able to hear sounds between 400 and 2000 hertz, however it sense of smell is quite keen. It is able to see as far away as 300 metres (980 ft), but because its retinas only contain cones, it is thought to have poor night vision. The Komodo dragon prefers hot and dry places, and typically lives in dry open grassland, savanna, and tropical forest at low elevations.
Although it is not venomous, the bite of the Komodo Dragon is quite deadly, comprised of a cocktail of bacteria which rapidly infect the wounds it inflicts. It can therefore track its wounded prey from the stench of the infection. While it is a predator, the monitor lizard also scavenges for its carnivorous diet
Alligators are only native to the United States and China.
An average adult American alligator's weight and length is 800 pounds (360 kg) and 13 feet (4.0 m) long but can grow to 14.5 feet (4.4 m) long and weigh 1,032 pounds (468 kg). The largest specimen ever recorded was found in Louisiana and measured 19 feet 2 inches (5.84 m). The Chinese alligator is smaller, rarely exceeding 7 feet (2.1 m) in length.
American alligators are found in the southeast United States: all of Florida and Louisiana, the southern parts of Georgia, Alabama and Mississippi, coastal Southand North Carolina, Eastern Texas, the southeast corner of Oklahoma and the southern tip of Arkansas.
The Chinese alligator currently is found only in the Yangtze River valley and is extremely endangered, with only a few dozen believed to be left in the wild.
Forest Scorpion are found in a wide range over southeast Asia, particularly Malaysia, and most imports arrive from Thailand, also can be found in Vietnam. These scorpions are dark brown to black, with most species sporting a green or blue tint in certain lighting. The average size of a mature adult is about 6" (16 cm). This scorpion feeds on large insects such as crickets, locusts and even small mice.
The word hyena is derived from the Greek hyaina, meaning "pig", and has a long association with cruelty, treachery and greed. The hyena (spelled "hyeana" in some parts of the world) is Africa's most common large carnivore. Over the years hyenas and humans have come into close contact in Africa and, in earlier times, in Asia and in Europe, consists of four living species, the Striped Hyena and Brown Hyena (genus Hyaena), the Spotted Hyena (genus Crocuta), and the Aardwolf (genus Proteles). In ancient Egypt hyenas were domesticated, fattened and eaten, and in turn humans have on occasion become food for hyenas. Reputed to be cowardly and timid, the hyena can be bold and dangerous, attacking animals and humans.
Hyenas are savage animals but when in captivity it can be just like other tame domestic animals, spotted in Nigeria.
The Turkey Vulture, Cathartes aura, is a bird found throughout most of the Americas. A large bird, the turkey vulture has a wingspan of 170–183 cm (67–72 in), a length of 64–81 cm (25–32 in), and weight of 0.85–2.26 kg (1.9–5 lb), It has dark brown to black plumage; a featherless, purplish-red head and neck; and a short, hooked, ivory-colored beak. Its life expectancy in the wild ranges upward of 16 years, with a captive life span of over 20 years being possible.The Turkey Vulture is a scavenger and feeds almost exclusively on carrion. It finds its meals using its keen vision and sense of smell, flying low enough to detect the gasses produced by the beginnings of the process of decay in dead animals. In flight, it uses thermals to move through the air, flapping its wings infrequently.
A Silverback is an adult male gorilla, typically more than 12 years of age and named for the distinctive patch of silver hair on his back. A Silverback Gorilla has large canine teeth that come with maturity. Silverbacks are the strong, dominant troop leaders. Silverback Gorillas range in height over 1.8 metres (5 ft 11 in) and 230 kg (510 lb). They live in the Virginia mountain range along the borders of Rwanda, Uganda, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
The Great Grey Owl or Lapland Owl is a very large owl, distributed across the Northern Hemisphere. In some areas it is also called the Great Gray Ghost, Phantom of the north, Cinerous Owl, Spectral Owl, Lapland Owl, Spruce Owl, Bearded Owl and Sooty Owl.
These birds wait, listen, and watch for prey, then swoop down; they also may fly low through open areas in search of prey. Their large facial disks, also known as "ruffs", focus sound, and the asymmetrical placement of their ears assists them in locating prey, because of the lack of light during the late and early hours in which they hunt. On the nesting grounds, they mainly hunt at night and near dawn and dusk; at other times, they are active mostly during the night. They have excellent hearing, and may locate (and then capture) prey moving beneath 60 cm (2 feet) of snow in a series of tunnels solely with that sense. Great Grey Owls rely almost fully upon small rodents, with voles being their most important food source. Locally, alternative prey animals (usually comprising less than 20% of prey intake) include hares, moles, shrews, weasels, thrushes, grouse, Gray Jays, small hawks and ducks
The grey reef shark (Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos, sometimes misspelled amblyrhynchus or amblyrhinchos) is a species of requiem shark, familyCarcharhinidae. One of the most common reef sharks in the Indo-Pacific, it is found as far east as Easter Island and as far west as South Africa. This species is most often seen in shallow water near the drop-offs of coral reefs. The grey reef shark has the typical "reef shark" shape, with a broad, round snout and large eyes. This species can be distinguished from similar species by the plain or white-tipped first dorsal fin, the dark tips on the other fins, the broad black rear margin on the tail fin, and the lack of a ridge between the dorsal fins. Most individuals are less than 1.9 m (6.2 ft) long.
Common names: Russell's viper, chain viper, Indian Russell's viper.
It is found in Asia throughout the Indian subcontinent, much of Southeast Asia, southern China and Taiwan. Due largely to its irritable nature, it is responsible for more human fatalities than any other venomous snake. Within much of its range, this species is easily the most dangerous viperid snake and a major cause of snakebite injury and mortality. It is a member of the big four venomous snakes in India, which are together responsible for nearly all Indian snakebite fatalities.
The banded krait occurs in the whole of the Indo-Chinese subregion, the Malaysian peninsula and archipelago and Southern China.
Though venomous, banded kraits are shy, not typically seen, and are mainly nocturnal. When harassed, they will usually hide their heads under their coils, and do not generally attempt to bite, though at night they are much more active and widely considered to be more dangerous then.
The South China tiger or South Chinese tiger (Panthera tigris amoyensis), also known as the Chinese, Amoy, or Xiamen tiger, is a subspecies of tiger native to the forests of Southern China. The South China tiger is one of the smaller and it is the most critically endangered of any of the living tiger subspecies. Experts maintain that there are fewer than 20 of these tigers left in the wild, and warn that it might become extinct within the next decade. One was recently born in a reserve in South Africa in November 2007, the first to be born outside China.
The polar bear (Ursus maritimus) is a bear native largely within the Arctic circle encompassing the Arctic Ocean, its surrounding seas and surrounding land masses. It is the world's largest land carnivore and also the largest bear, together with the omnivorous Kodiak bear, which is approximately the same size. An adult male weighs around 350–680 kg (770–1,500 lb), while an adult female is about half that size. Although it is closely related to the brown bear, it has evolved to occupy a narrow ecological niche, with many body characteristics adapted for cold temperatures, for moving across snow, ice, and open water, and for hunting the seals which make up most of its diet
Falconry or hawking is a sport which involves the use of trained raptors (birds of prey) to hunt or pursue game for humans. There are two traditional terms used to describe a person involved in falconry: a falconer flies a falcon; an austringer flies a hawk (Accipiter and some buteonines and similar) or an eagle (Aquila or similar). In modern falconry the Red-tailed Hawk (Buteo jamaicensis) and the Harris hawk are often used. The words "hawking" and "hawker" have become used so much to mean petty traveling traders, that the terms "falconer" and "falconry" now apply to all use of trained birds of prey to catch game.
The word rhinoceros is derived through Latin from the Greek ῥῑνόκερως, which is composed of ῥῑνο-, ῥίς (rhino-, rhis), meaning nose, and κέρας (keras), meaning horn. Any of a family (Rhinocerotidae) of large heavyset herbivorous perissodactyl mammals of Africa and Asia that have one or two upright keratinous horns on the snout and thick gray to brown skin with little hair.
The muskox (Ovibos moschatus) is an Arctic mammal of the Bovidae family, noted for its thick coat and for the strong odor emitted by males, from which its name derives. This musky odor is used to attract females during mating season. Muskoxen live primarily in Arctic North America, with small reintroduced populations in Sweden, Siberia and Norway.
Bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) is a species of sheep in North America with large horns. These horns can weigh up to 30 pounds (14 kg), while the sheep themselves weigh up to 300 pounds (140 kg). Bighorn Sheep are often confused with Mountain Goats, another mammal that occupies mountainous regions. Recent genetic testing indicates that there are three distinct subspecies of Ovis canadensis, one of which is endangered: Ovis canadensis sierrae.
Africanized honey bees, known usually as the "killer bee", are hybrids of the African honey bee (not A. m. adansonii; see Collet et al., 2006), with various European honey bees such as the Italian bee A. m. ligustica and A. m. iberiensis. These bees are far more aggressive than the European subspecies. Small swarms of AHBs are capable of taking over European honey beehives by invading the hive and establishing their own queen after killing the European queen.[
The Red-tailed Hawk (Buteo jamaicensis) is a bird of prey, one of three species colloquially known in the United States as the "chickenhawk," though it rarely preys on chickens. It breeds throughout most of North America, from western Alaska and northern Canada to as far south as Panama and the West Indies, and is one of the most common buteos in North America. Red-tailed Hawks can acclimate to all the biomes within its range.
The Inland Taipan (Oxyuranus microlepidotus), also known as the Small Scaled Snake and Fierce Snake, is native to Australia and is the most venomous land snake on Earth. It is a species of taipan belonging to the Elapidae family. Although highly venomous, it is very shy and reclusive, and prefers to escape from trouble, biting only if threatened.
The Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) is a bird of prey found in North America. It is the national bird and symbol of the United States of America. This sea eagle has two known sub-species and forms a species pair with the White-tailed Eagle. Its range includes most of Canada and Alaska, all of the contiguous United States, and northern Mexico. It is found near large bodies of open water with an abundant food supply and old-growth trees for nesting.
A mixed-breed dog, also called a mutt, is a dog whose ancestry is generally unknown and that has characteristics of two or more types of breeds, or is a descendant of feral or pariah dog populations. Dogs that are descended from many generations of mixes are typically light brown or black and weigh about 18 kg (40 lb). They typically stand between 38 and 57 cm (15 and 23 inches) tall at the withers.
Developed in Germany, the Boxer is a breed of stocky, medium-sized, short-haired dog. The Boxer is a short-haired breed, with a shiny, smooth coat that lies tight to the body. Boxers have broad, short skulls, and have a square muzzle, very strong jaws and a powerful bite ideal for hanging on to large prey. The Boxer was bred from the English Bulldog. Boxers were first exhibited in a dog show for St. Bernards at Munich in 1895. Boxer typically weighs between 55 and 70 lb (25 and 32 kg). Adult Boxers are between 22 and 25 inches (56 and 63 cm) tall at the withers.
The Bulldog had its origin in the British Isles. The term "bulldog" was first used around 1568. Gentle, friendly, and adoring, with a mischievous dose of stubbornness, the English Bulldog is incessantly loyal to its family. It usually gets along well with other animals, is particularly fond of children, and does best indoors. Highly spirited as a puppy, the English Bulldog grows up to be a calm adult. The breed prefers not to exercise, can easily overheat, and is prone to drooling and snoring.
The Bullmastiff is a powerful dog, which was originally a cross between the English Mastiff and the Old English Bulldog.
Males should be 25 to 27 inches (63 to 69 cm) tall at the withers and 110 to 130 pounds (50 to 59 kg). Females should be 24 to 26 inches (61 to 66 cm) at the withers, and 100 to 120 pounds (45 to 54 kg). Exceeding these dimensions is discouraged by breeders as a larger dog may be too cumbersome to be agile enough to properly perform the job for which the breed was created. Bullmastiffs are described as fawn, red, or brindle. A Bullmastiff should be confident, yet docile. A Bullmastiff is courageous, extremely loyal to its family, calm, and loving.
Historically, the dragon was the symbol of the Emperor of China. In the Zhou Dynasty, the 5-clawed dragon was assigned to the Son of Heaven, the 4-clawed dragon to the Zhuhou (seigneur), and the 3-clawed dragon to the Daifu. In the Qing Dynasty, the 5-clawed dragon was assigned to represent the Emperor while the 4-clawed and 3-clawed dragons were assigned to the commoners. The dragon in the Qing Dynasty appeared on national flags.
Crickets are popular pets and are considered good luck in some countries; in China, crickets are sometimes kept in cages. It is also common to have them as caged pets in some European countries, particularly in the Iberian Peninsula. Cricket fighting as a gambling or sports betting pastime also occurs, particularly in Southeast Asia.
Puffer fish are the second–most poisonous vertebrate in the world, after the Golden Poison Frog. The puffer's skin and certain internal organs are highly toxic to humans, but nevertheless the meat of some species is considered a delicacy in both Japan (as fugu) and Korea (as bok) when prepared by cooks who know what is safe to eat. Thick gloves should be worn to avoid poisoning and bites when removing the hook from a caught animal.
The Sergeant Major or píntano (Abudefduf saxatilis, family Pomacentridae) is a large, colourful damselfish. It earns its name from its brightly striped sides, which are reminiscent of the insignia of a military Sergeant Major. It grows to a length of about 15cm (6 inches). Sergeant majors are found throughout the tropical reaches of the Atlantic, including off the south coast of the United States, Central America, eastern South America and western Africa. They are often found on coral reefs at depths of between 1 and 12 meters.
They are a popular aquarium fish, although their aggressively territorial nature can pose problems if not closely watched.
The Yellowtail Snapper, Ocyurus chrysurus, is an abundant species of snapper found along the North American coast of the Atlantic Ocean. Although they have been found as far north as Massachusetts, their normal range is along Florida down through the West Indies and Brazil.
Barracudas appear in open seas. They are voracious predators and hunt using a classic example of lie-in-wait or ambush. They rely on surprise and short bursts of speed (up to 27 mph (43 km/h)) to overrun their prey, sacrificing maneuverability. Barracudas are more or less solitary in their habits. Young and half-grown fish frequently congregate in shoals. Their food is composed almost totally of fishes of all kinds. Large barracudas, when gorged, may attempt to herd a school of prey fishes in shallow water, where they guard over them until they are ready for another meal.
The Queen Angelfish (Holacanthus ciliaris) is an angelfish commonly found near reefs in the warmer sections of the western Atlantic Ocean. The adult queen angelfish overall body color can be described as blue to bluegreen with yellow rims on its scales. Their pectoral fins and ventral fins are also yellow but their lips and the edges of their dorsal fins and anal fins are dark blue. Queen angelfish are also known to have blue markings around each gill cover. Juveniles have dark blue bodies with yellow lips, gills, and tail and vertical bars ranging in color from light blue to white. The queen angelfish may live up to 15 years in the wild and reach up to 45 centimetres in length. Queen angelfish are about three and a half pounds.
The Caribbean reef shark (Carcharhinus perezi, often misspelled perezii) is a species of requiem shark, family Carcharhinidae. It is found in the tropical waters of the western Atlantic Ocean from Florida to Brazil, and is the most commonly encountered reef shark in the Caribbean Sea. With a robust, streamlined body typical of the requiem sharks, this species is difficult to tell apart from other large members of its family such as the dusky shark (C. obscurus) and the silky shark (C. falciformis). Distinguishing characteristics include dusky-colored fins without prominent markings, a short free rear tip on the second dorsal fin, and tooth shape and number. Measuring up to 3 m (10 ft) long, the Caribbean reef shark is one of the largest apex predators in the reef ecosystem, feeding on a variety of fishes and cephalopods.
Marlins are distributed throughout the Atlantic's tropical and temperate waters; they are more populous in the western parts. It is a blue water fish that spends the majority of its life in the open sea, far away from land. Marlin have few predators apart from man; its not currently considered as a threatened species.
Mill Reef (1968-1986) was a Champion Thoroughbred racehorse in the United Kingdom.
Mill Reef was owned and bred in the United States of America at the Rokeby Stables in Virginia of his owner and breeder the philanthropist Paul Mellon. As a yearling it was thought that his action better suited him to a career on the turf courses in Europe rather than the dirt tracks in America and so he was sent to England in December 1969 to be trained by Paul Mellon's young English trainer Ian Balding at Kingsclere. He was ridden by Geoff Lewis in all his fourteen races. Mellon named the horse after the Mill Reef Club, which is situated on the island of Antigua in the West Indies. The Mellon family has maintained a home at Mill Reef since its founding in 1947. Mill Reef died in 1986 and he is buried within the National Stud where a statue stands in his memory.
Sea Bird II (1962-1973) is considered by many to be the greatest post-war European flat racehorse. His Timeform rating of 145 is still the highest ever flat figure awarded by that publication.
Owned and bred at the stables of Lille textile manufacturer Jean Ternynck, Sea Bird II is most famous for his breathtaking victories in two of Europe's most prestigious races: the Epsom Derby and the Prix de l'Arc de Triomphe. He was by the French Derby runner-up Dan Cupid, and trained, like his sire, in France by Etienne Pollet. Amazingly, his five immediate dams never won a flat race among them.
He had just three races as a two-year-old, winning two (including the Critérium de Maisons-Laffitte). He met with the only defeat of his career in the Grand Critérium when second to his stablemate Grey Dawn. Prior to the running of his final race, the American breeder John W. Galbreath paid owner Jean Ternynck a reported $1,350,000 to lease Sea Bird II for five years' stud duty at his Darby Dan Farm in Kentucky.
Arkle (April 19, 1957 - May 31, 1970) was a famous Irish Thoroughbred racehorse. A bay gelding by Archive out of Bright Cherry, his grandsire was the unbeaten (in 14 races) flat racehorse and prepotent sire Nearco. Arkle was bred at Ballymacoll Stud, County Meath by Mrs. Mary Alison Baker of Malahow House, near Naul, County Dublin. Owned by Anne Grosvenor, Duchess of Westminster, Arkle was trained by Tom Dreaper at Greenogue, Kilsallaghan in County Dublin, Ireland and ridden during his steeplechasing career by Pat Taaffe. Arkle became the first racehorse in Britain to capture public attention outside racing circles and he is regarded as the greatest steeplechaser of all time. At 212 his Timeform rating is the highest ever awarded to a steeplechaser. Despite his career being cut short by injury he still won three Cheltenham Gold Cups, the Blue Riband of steeplechasing, and a host of other top prizes. The government-owned Irish National Stud, at Tully, Kildare, Co. Kildare, Ireland has the skeleton of Arkle on display in its museum.
Golden Miller (1927-1957) was a Thoroughbred racehorse who is the only horse to have won both of the United Kingdom's premier steeplechase races - the Cheltenham Gold Cup and the Grand National - in the same year (1934), setting a new course record for Aintree in the National. The 1934 win was the middle of five consecutive Gold Cup victories, a Gold Cup record. He was trained by Basil Briscoe in Longstowe, Cambridgeshire and retired in 1939 with a record of 28 wins from 52 races. He was owned by the very eccentric Dorothy Paget. He is buried at Elsenham Stud, a working farm in Elsenham, West Essex.
St. Simon (1881 - April 2, 1908) was an undefeated British Thoroughbred racehorse and one of the most successful sires in the history of the Thoroughbred. In The Sporting Times' ranking of the Top 10 Great Britain Racehorses of the 19th Century (1886), St. Simon was ranked fourth.
The death of his owner in May 1883 led to a dispersal sale of all his stock, where he was purchased for only 1,600 guineas by the 25-year-old Duke of Portland, and moved to Heath House stables at Newmarket. The colt began his racing career under jockey Fred Archer, at the five furlong Halnaker Stakes at Goodwood, winning by six lengths, and the following day he won the six furlong Maiden Plate (for which he was eligible because he was a maiden at the time of his entry) by a length, carrying 9st 7lb (133 lb.) He then easily won a five furlong race against Clochette and Fleta, the five furlong Devonshire Nursery Plate (against 19 other horses, carrying 8st 12lb [124 lb]) by two lengths at a canter, and the seven furlong Princes of Wales's Nursery Plate (Doncaster) carrying 9st (126 lb or 57 kg) and winning by eight lengths against 21 other horses. St. Simon followed this by a win in a six furlong match against Duke of Richmond, to end his two-year-old year considered the best of his age, despite never having won a major stakes race.
At three, St. Simon won by walk over at the 10 furlong Epsom Gold Cup. He then won the 2½ mile Ascot Gold Cup by an incredible 20 lengths, despite having trailed in the beginning of the race, to beat Tristan (the best older horse of the year) and Faugh-a-Ballagh, and was so strong that it took almost a whole lap for his jockey to pull him up. At the one-mile Newcastle Gold Cup, he beat his only other competitor, Chiselhurst, by eight lengths, but suffered some damage due to the hard ground. He then beat former St. Leger winner Ossian by 20 lengths in the 2½ mile Goodwood Cup. Additionally, St. Simon had easily beaten The Lambkin (who would win that year's St. Leger), that year's 2,000 Guineas Stakes winner, Scot Free, and St. Gatien, who had dead-heated for the win a the Derby, showing he had the talent to win the Triple Crown had he ever had the chance to pursue that route.
The Newcastle Cup running caught up to him, producing serious leg problems, and he never raced again. However, he was kept in training, so did not begin his breeding career until he was five.
Ormonde (1883-1904) was an English Thoroughbred racehorse, an unbeaten Triple Crown winner, generally considered to be one of the greatest racehorses ever. At three he won firstly the 2,000 Guineas, defeating the strongly fancied and previously unbeaten Minting. He went on to beat The Bard (also previously undefeated) in the Epsom Derby and followed up by winning the St. James's Palace Stakes and the Hardwicke Stakes, both at Ascot Racecourse, and then completed the Triple Crown by winning the Doncaster St. Leger Stakes in a canter. He ended a triumphant season with wins in the Great Foal Stakes, the Champion Stakes, the Free Handicap and a walkover in a Private Sweepstakes.
Ormonde went to the Duke of Westminter's stud in 1888. He was then moved to Newmarket, became sick and had reduced fertility, but he produced Orme, sire of another Triple Crown winner, Flying Fox. When he was six Ormonde was sold for ₤12,000 and exported to Argentina. Sold again in 1893, by his Argentinian owner, for ₤31,250 he was sent to California where he sired 16 offspring including Ormondale who sired Purchase. He died in 1904 at age 21 at Rancho Wikiup in Santa Rosa, California. His disarticulated skeleton/skull were later returned to the Natural History Museum in South Kensington, London.
Eclipse (April 1, 1764 – February 26, 1789) was an outstanding, undefeated 18th-century British Thoroughbred racehorse who was later a phenomenal success as a sire.
He was born during and named after the solar eclipse of 1 April 1764, at the Cranbourne Lodge Stud of his breeder, Prince William Augustus, Duke of Cumberland. It was at this stud that his sire, Marske (by Squirt from The Ruby Mare) stood, his dam, Spiletta (foaled 1749) was by Regulus, by the Godolphin Arabian. After the death of Prince William in 1765, Eclipse was sold for 75 guineas to a sheep dealer from Smithfield, William Wildman.
The amazing life story of Eclipse inspired the novel O'Kelly's Eclipse by screenwriter Arthur Weiss. Eclipse won 19 races, including 18 King's Plates, supposedly without ever being fully extended and proving far superior to all competition. During this time he raced over 63 miles and walked 1,400 miles to race meetings across England. Eclipse died due to a colic on 26 February 1789, at the age of 24. His skeleton is now housed at the Royal Veterinary College, Hertfordshire, in the Learning Resource Centre named after him, although it cannot be said for certain whether all the bones displayed are really from Eclipse. His hooves were made into inkstands, although the fact that there are at least five Eclipse-hoof inkstands casts some doubt about the authenticity of some. Hairs from his tail have also been used for decorations.